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More specifically, the text seeks to understand the use of the hard power by the Russian Federation during the crisis and how this use can lead to a reassessment of European idealistic approach of international relations and military matters. Akon - A Penetrator for Europa.

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Jupiter's moon Europa is one of the most intriguing objects in our Solar System. This km-wide body has a geologically young solid water ice crust that is believed to cover a global ocean of liquid water. The presence of this ocean, together with a source of heating through tidal forces, make Europa a conceivable location for extraterrestrial life.

The science case for exploring all aspects of this icy world is compelling. The US agency has extended to the European Space Agency an invitation to provide a contribution to their mission. European scientists interested in Europa science and exploration are currently organizing themselves, in the framework of a coordinated Europa M5 Inititative to study concurrently the main options for this ESA contribution, from a simple addition of individual instruments to the NASA spacecraft, to a lander to investigate Europa 's surface in situ.

A high speed lander - a penetrator - is by far the most promising technology to achieve this latter option within the anticipated mass constraints, and studies of such a hard lander, many funded by ESA, are now at an advanced level. We present plans for the Akon penetrator, which would impact Europa 's surface at several hundred metres per second, and travel up to several metres into the moon's subsurface. To achieve this, the penetrator would be delivered to the surface by a dedicated descent module, to be destroyed on impact following release of the penetrator above the surface.

It is planned that the instruments to be. Digitalisierung des Kulturellen Erbes Europas. Gruber, M. National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed work is to validate an initial design for a Europa penetrator that can withstand the high g load associated with the expected hypervelocity The Europa Clipper Mission Concept. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa , concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon.

Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon's surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to km.

We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite's ice and ocean, composition, and geology.


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The set of investigations derived from the Europa Clipper science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar for sounding of ice-water interfaces within and beneath the ice shell , Topographical Imager for stereo imaging of the surface , ShortWave Infrared Spectrometer for surface composition , Neutral Mass Spectrometer for atmospheric composition , Magnetometer and Langmuir Probes for inferring the satellite's induction field to characterize an ocean , and Gravity Science to confirm an ocean.

The mission would also include the capability to perform reconnaissance for a future lander.

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Full Text Available Este texto tem como objetivo apresentar a possibilidade de utilizar, no ensino de História, a crônica escrita por Rachel de Queiroz em jornais e revistas da primeira metade do século XX. Europa : Initial Galileo Geological Observations. Greeley, R. Images of Europa from the Galileo spacecraft show a surface with a complex history involving tectonic deformation, impact cratering, and possible emplacement of ice-rich materials and perhaps liquids on the surface. Differences in impact crater distributions suggest that some areas have been resurfaced more recently than others; Europa could experience current cryovolcanic and tectonic activity.

Global-scale patterns of tectonic features suggest deformation resulting from non-synchronous rotation of Europa around Jupiter. Some regions of the lithosphere have been fractured, with icy plates separated and rotated into new positions. The dimensions of these plates suggest that the depth to liquid or mobile ice was only a few kilometers at the time of disruption. Some surfaces have also been upwarped, possibly by diapirs, cryomagmatic intrusions, or convective upwelling.

Europa como cultura. Full Text Available El presente texto tiene un origen muy concreto. En este texto se toma aquel comentario como punto de partida. The origins of this text are very specific. Inmigraciones en Europa. Full Text Available In an interval of only six decades , we have witnessed the five centuries old emigration process interruption that has shaped modern European history.

At the end of World War II begins an intense opposite migration flow from former European colonies to their historic metropolis, which had also incorporated other areas that never had that relationship of dependency. This phenomenon is undoubtedly the most important contemporary social process that has taken place in Europe. Such a transformation could only occur by the confluence of important complementary factors.

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In separate sections of this article we present the main causes of recent immigrations in Europe and what flows within Europe and from other continents can be identified. Second, we explore the key aspects of immigration: demographics, gender and labor market. Then, we study the problems of integration in the host societies and immigration policies that facilitate it. We ended our discussion with references to the singular case of Spain. En un intervalo de sólo seis décadas , hemos sido testigos de la interrupción del proceso multisecular emigratorio que ha marcado toda la historia moderna europea.

Una transformación así sólo ha podido ocurrir por la confluencia de importantes factores complementarios.


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En diferentes apartados de este artículo exponemos las principales causas de la inmigración reciente en Europa y qué flujos intraeuropeos y procedentes de otros continentes pueden identificarse. En segundo término, nos interesamos por los aspectos claves del fenómeno inmigratorio. Exogenic and endogenic Europa minerals.

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Current explanations invoke both endogenic and exogenic origins for this material. It has long been suggested that magnesium and sodium sulfate minerals could have leached from the rock below a putative ocean endogenic 1 and that sulfuric acid hydrate minerals could have been radiologically produced from ionised sulfur originally from Io's volcanoes exogenic 2. What if the minerals are actually from combination of both endogenic and exogenic sources? To investigate this possibility we have focused on discovering new minerals that might form in the combination of the latter two cases, that is a mixture of leached sulfates hydrates with radiologically produced sulfuric acid.

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We report a number of new materials formed in this these ternary systems. Brine volcanism and the interior structures of asteroids and icy satellites. Icarus 94, Distribution of hydrate on Europa : Further evidence for sulfuric acid hydrate. Icarus , , doi Europa 's surface color suggests an ocean rich with sodium chloride. Geophysical Research Letters, GL, doi This paper analysis the integration process of higher education system in Europe, region that, since the end of Second World War is trying to eliminate the borders in all scopes.

The Process has been named as Bologna's Process, to homage the older Europe's university. It is a set of resolutions, events and rules, related to the implementation measures of the principles resulted of the European ministers meeting, occurred in Bologna in , with the purpose of building an European space of higher education until The fundamental goals are competitiveness of the front Higher education European system to others regions, mobility and the job in the European Space. The aim of this study is to analyze the importance of managing information in High Education Institutions - Public High Education Institutions, focusing on the Portuguese context.

The scenery of financial crisis that crosses over the Portuguese public sector over the past few years is eye-catching. Salary cuts and the decrease on the number of vacancies in public high education institutions has been a major concern. Therefore, it is of high importance to analyze to what extend the cost accountancy by the means of managing information can support the management of high education institutions.

It was taken a bibliographic research which allowed depicting the main functions of the cost information as a support to the decision making process in the High Education Institutions. The explanatory advantages which were found in this study lead us. Lock, Robert E. The concept is to perform a multi-year study of Europa and the Jupiter system, including 30 months of Jupiter system science and a comprehensive Europa orbit phase of 9 months.

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This paper provides an overview of the JEO concept and describes the Europa Science phase orbit design and the related science priorities, model pay-load and operations scenarios needed to conduct the Europa Science phase. This overview is for planning and discussion purposes only. As valsas na Europa e na América do Sul. Pretendemos assim, mostrar o interesse destes compositores, na escrita desta forma mu Europa 's tenuous atmosphere results from sputtering of the surface. The trace element composition of its atmosphere is therefore related to the composition of Europa 's surface.

Magnesium salts are often invoked to explain Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer spectra of Europa 's surface, thus magnesium may be present in Europa 's atmosphere. We have searched for magnesium emission in the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph archival spectra of Europa 's atmosphere. Magnesium was not detected and we calculate an upper limit on the magnesium column abundance. This upper limit indicates that either Europa 's surface is depleted in magnesium relative to sodium and potassium, or magnesium is not sputtered as efficiently resulting in a relative depletion in its atmosphere.

Apesar dos avanços científicos recentes, ainda existem lacunas de conhecimento de herpetofauna.

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Foram incluídos também os registros disponíveis em coleções científicas e na literatura. Foram registradas 46 espécies de répteis pertencentes aos grupos Squamata e Crocodylia. Assessment of Europa 's habitability, as an overarching science goal, will progress via a comprehensive investigation of Europa 's subsurface ocean, chemical composition, and internal dynamical processes, The National Research Council's Planetary Decadal Survey placed an extremely high priority on Europa science but noted that the budget profile for the Jupiter Europa Orbiter 1EO mission concept is incompatible with NASA's projected planetary science budget Thus, NASA enlisted a small Europa Science Definition Team ESDT to consider more pragmatic Europa mission options, In its preliminary findings May, , the ESDT embraces a science scope and instrument complement comparable to the science "floor" for JEO, but with a radically different mission implementation.

Galileo data have demonstrated the probable presence of a liquid water ocean on Europa , and existence of salts and carbon dioxide in the satellite's surface ice e. Subsequently, the discovery of chemical signatures of extinct or extant life in Europa 's ocean and on its surface became a distinct possibility. Moreover, understanding of Europa 's potential habitability is now one of the major goals of the Europa Orbiter Flagship mission.

It is likely, that in the early stages of Europa 's ocean formation, moderately alkaline oceanic sulfate-carbonate species and a magnetite-silicate mantel could have participated in low-temperature biogeochemical sulfur, iron and carbon cycles facilitated by primitive organisms Zolotov and Shock, If periodic supplies of fresh rock and sulfate-carbonate ions are available in Europa 's ocean, then an exciting prospect exists that life may be present in Europa 's ocean today.

In our laboratory, we began the study of the plausible biogeochemical reactions under conditions appropriate to Europa 's ocean using barophilic psychrophilic organisms that thrive under anaerobic conditions. In the near absence of abiotic synthetic pathways due to low Europa 's temperatures, the biotic synthesis may present a viable opportunity for the formation of the organic and inorganic compounds under these extreme conditions.

This work is independent of assumptions regarding hydrothermal vents at Europa 's ocean floor or surface-derived oxidant sources. For our studies, we have fabricated a high-pressure 5, psi reaction vessel that simulates aqueous conditions on Europa. We were also successful at reviving barophilic psychrophilic strains of Shewanella bacterium, which serve as test organisms in this investigation.